Adolf Eichmann

Milgram’s Influence: Adolf Eichmann and his trial

Adolf Eichmann’s Trial (Photo Credit: Timothy Nunan)

Adolf Eichmann was the head of the Department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941-1945. Eichmann was also the chief of operations in the deportation of 3 million Jews to extermination camps. It was Eichmann who organized the Wannsee Conference of January 1942, focusing on the issues related to the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” He began to organize the mass deportation of the Jews from Germany to Bohemia in accordance with Hitler’s orders to make the Reich free of Jews as rapidly as possible.

At the end of World War II, Eichmann was arrested and confined to an American internment camp. Eichmann was able to escape the American internment camp, unrecognized. He then fled to Argentina and lived under the alias of Ricardo Klement for 10 years until Israeli Mossad agents abducted him in 1960 to stand trial in Jerusalem. Eichmann’s trial went from April to August of 1961. On December 11, 1961 Eichmann was indicted on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership in an outlawed organization. He was then sentenced to death December 15, 1961. Two minutes before midnight on May 31, 1962, Eichmann was executed by hanging in Ramleh, Israel. He was cremated and his ashes were spread at sea, beyond Israel’s territorial waters. This was the only time Israel has enacted a death sentence (Adolf Eichmann, 1997).

At his trial, he expressed surprise at being hated by Jewish people, stating that he had “merely obeyed orders, and surely obeying orders could only be a good thing.” He was declared sane by 6 psychiatrists and was described at his trial as a very average man (McLeod, 2007). The New Yorker magazine sent over reporter, Hannah Arendt, to cover the trial. It was because of Eichmann’s dull bureaucratic demeanor that Arendt coined the phrase “the banality of evil” (Perry, 2013).

Adolf Eichmann (Photo Credit: Krusty 1960s History Story)